When the Knigsbergradio came to the farm
Revised edition September 24th, 2012
If you come to NorwayŐs capital city Oslo, and take the subway line no.2 going eastwards to Ellingsrudsen, and then go off at Tveita station, youŐll be in the middle of a large suburban center, typical of many European countries.
Illustration: Map of Tveita and surrounding areas.(Source: Oslo Sporveier)
Most of the large number of people going through the mall every day wonŐt have the slightest idea that just behind the centre, a very strange radio station was operated by the German Occupation Forces during the Second World War.
Picture: Tveita today. The three large blocks, each 40 metres high, a primary school, a high school and a football field now occupy the site of the radio station that once was there. The three antenna towers, 60 metres high, were placed near the end of the southernmost block.
By kind permission from the photographer: Bjżrn H. Syversen, Groruddalen historielag.Š E-mail: bhsy(at)online.no
It was one of 23 mobile German broadcast stations spread across Europe, 22 in trucks and 1 in a train. The station we are dealing with in this essay was called Sender L or Transmitter L. Previously it was used in Rovaniemi in Finland, operating as Laplandsender.
Even if the station seems to have been mothballed after the Nazi regime was conquered and peace came to the European War Theatre, it was in existence all of summer 1945, and a smiling German Military Station Manager even proudly received foreign journalists pointing machine guns at them!
This then is what is known from several sources so far of the story of the Knigsbergradio at Tveten farm.
Source 1. A Crystal receiver in the loft. FromÓGroruddalsungdom i krigstidÓ, p.109.  By kind permission from the author: Bjżrn H. Syversen, Groruddalen historielag.Š E-mail: bhsy(at)online.no
Karl-Henrik Amundsen, a former employe of Telenor has told about a German-controlled radio station operating in Oslo, Norway possibly from as early as 1942, when he was 15 years old.
This was not identical to the regular Oslo LKO Longwave station at nearby Lambertseter, operating on 260 kHz, also in German(ÓDer Osloer senderÓ) and Nazi Government hands at the time. The site was heavily guarded, and also had been equipped with jamming equipment.
The source received the transmissions on a self-built crystal receiver well hidden in the loft at his home in the village of Godlia. The propaganda transmissions were both in Norwegian and German, but mostly with a lot of dance music. The station identified as Radio Norden or similar.
Picture: Radio listening in the bunker. Typical German radio set for use in the field. Note the dial markers for German stations like the Knigsbergradio. This set was found in the Siegfried bunker in Bud.
The Godlia source also says that the German occupation forces established a Medium Wave broadcasting station at a field belonging to Tveten farm. Behind one of the large Tveita blocks today, there still is a large hill, that local people think may hide the remnants of a bunker, containing most of the installation. Visible were the three 60 metres custom-built wooden antenna masts, each wrapped with additional planks painted with two red and two white fields also having an inside ladder. Local kids dared to climb to the top after the Germans had left. As far as Mr.Amundsen can remember, the guy wires were cut and the towers felled relatively soon after Norway regained her freedom in May 1945. I do not know who did this, Milorg(The Resistance) or others, he added.
Picture: Just before the antenna towers on the ground of Tveten farm were demolished in 1945, some quite daring youngsters made it to the top. One of then was Henrik Dedichen, who took this fine picture of what is now Oslo East, seen in the direction of Grefsen Mountain. By kind permission from Groruddalen historielagŠ.
Incidentially, at this time, there were largely open fields between the radio station and GodliaŐs Stordam Road. A maid, living in one of the houses there, had a terrible experience late one night. She was abruptly awakened by a shot, and saw there was a bullet hole in the window. It emerged the Germans had a party, and drunken as they were, had their fun by firing shots in every direction. The bullet was later found in the girlŐs bed.
Picture: Note this typical ÓHave a think about itÓ poster issued by the NorwayŐs Quisling fascist government during WW2 warning against listening to the BBC.
Comment: Norwegians could not listen to the radio at this time without risking their freedom, and most radios had been confiscated since 1941. There were however, quite many illegal listeners, including publishers of illegal papers often listening to the news from ÓLondon RadioÓ(BBC in Norwegian).
Source 2. Diary of Sender L (Lappland). From ÓRundfunksender auf Rdern. Die fahrbaren Rundfunksendeanlagen der Deutschen Reichspost in den Jahren 1932 bis 1945"(2003) By kind permission from the author: Bernd-Andreas Mller, Weststrasse 125, D-09116 Chemnitz, Germany.Š Fax: +49 371 36 11 95.
October 28th 1940: Check up by Post Office-RPZ.
January 1941: Measurements on DRP site in Teltow near Berlin; antenna tests on January 16th.
February 1941: Drive from Berlin via Magdeburg; Dsseldorf; Tilburg; Steenbergen to the Dutch island Schouwen in the Rhein-Schelde Estuary to be used as beacon "Schwerst-Funkfeuer Fritz.Ó
October 1942: Drive to Potsdam. On a train through Denmark and Sweden to Tornio in Lappland.
December 1942: Set up of transmitter 10 km SE of Rovaniemi on the road to Ranua and of studios in a barrack in Korvanniemi, approx. 3 km S of the centre of Rovaniemi.
December15th 1942: Start of test transmissions.
December 24th 1942: At 19:30 hrs the official start of "Soldatensender LapplandÓ; ran by a propaganda unit (PK 680). Transmissions from an outside broadcast vehicle. Antenna between two wooden masts. Power supply from a diesel engine.Three days transmissions, then break to December 31st 1942.
January 10th 1943: Barrack destroyed by fire. At 17:00 hrs transmissions from a temporary studio in a farm house.
The ÓLappland-KurierÓ of the PK 680 mentioned these transmission hours: 12:30 to 15:30 and 20:00 (Sundays also19:00) to 23:00 (Saturdays also 24:00) hrs on 297 kHz.
Approx. May 1943: Connection with the Rovaniemi power plant.
End of May 1943: Transmission times on 297kHz now 06:00 (Sundays 07:00) to 08:00; 12:30 to 15:30 and 20:00 (Sundays 19:00) to 23:00 (Saturdays 24:00) hrs.
Beginning of September 1943: According to a schedule "Soldatensender LapplandÓ transmitting 06:30 to 08:00 (Sundays 07:00 to 09:00); 12:30 to 15:30 and 18:30 (Sundays 18:00) to 23:30 (Saturdays 24:00) hrs on 297 kHz.
Approx. 1944: Often music to 04:00 hrs as beacon for the air force.
February 20th 1944: Connection with the German modulation cable network via Knigsberg-lnsterburg-Tilsit-Schaulen-Riga-Pernau-Reval-Rohuneeme-Porkkala-Helsinki. There was also a connection to the Finnish modulation cable network.
February 23rd 1944: The "Lappland-KurierÓ reported cuts of transmission times in the last weeks because of technical problems. Now transmissions 06:00 to 08:00, 12:00 to 15:30 and 21:00 to 01:00 hrs on 297 kHz.
End of April 1944: New schedule: 06:30 to 08:00 (Sundays 07:00 to 09:00), 13:00 (Sundays 13:30) to 14:30 and 20:00 (Sundays 19:00) to 23:00 hrs on 297 kHz.
Beginning of July 1944: Now transmissions 06:00 to 08:00 (Sundays 07:00 to 09:00), 12:00 to 15:30 and 18:00 to 24:00 hrs on 297 kHz.
Approx. September 1944: Start of Finnish language news.
Not later as mid-October 1944: Drive to Tromsż, then to Narvik, then with ship to Mosjżen. Drive to Drontheim(Trondheim) in heavy snow. From Drontheim on a train to Oslo.
January 1945: Set up in Hellerud on a hill.
Approx. the beginning of February 1945: Transmission of the Sweden program on 297 kHz. Antenna: probably 3 T-antennas on 3 steel or wooden masts, a Ó Dreieckflchenantenne.Ó Studio in southern Norway.
May 8th 1945: Surrender of German forces in Norway, station taken over by British troops and remains there.
Comment: Shortwave transmissions with the title ÓFrohe Musik nach Mitternacht auf kurzer WelleÓ are documented in February 1944.
Source 3. Rster i Radio Winter 1943.
ÓJust before the New Year a new Soldatensender appeared on Short-and Longwaves. The Longwave station is not too strong in Stockholm, but has a very good signal into Norrbotten. The shortwave signals on 25,4 and 45,5 metres are well heard in Stockholm, but are not logged in Northern Sweden so far.
Programming is light, and consists of gramophone jazz, ouvertures, musical potpourris, radio drama, as well as re-transmissions of Deutschlandsender and the Wehrmachtbericht. One is not sure of the location of this sender, but it might be in Tromsż, Bodż, Vadsż or elsewhere in Northern Norway.Ó
Picture: The actual Rster i Radio article(21/1943?) relating about Laplandsender in 1943.
Comment: Rster i Radio is the Swedish equivalent to ÓRadio TimesÓ and ÓProgrambladetÓ.
Source 4. Jan Erik Rf, Arctic Radio Club, Sweden
From MV-DXingens historia: MV-DXingens historia fram till 1950-talet:
ÓSwedish listeners were towards the end of 1943 able to receive a new Longwave station on 1010 metres calling itself Soldatensender Lappland. In the county of Norrbotten the reception quality was good, but it also used some Short Wave transmitters that were possible to hear from more Southern locations. It targetted German soldiers stationed in Norway and Finland. It broadcast a lot of gramophone records, but also re-transmitted Deutschlandsender in Berlin as well as the inevitable Wehrmachtbericht, the war news.ÓÉ
From MV-DXingens historia: Andra vrldskrigets slut:
ÓHier spricht der KnigsbergsradioÓ/
Hr talar Knigsbergsradion
Another example of the will to fight is what happened to the Swedish programs transmitted from Knigsberg in East Prussia, today known as the Russian enclave of Kaliningrad, on 868 and 224 kHz.
When the Soviet Army captured the city, a substitute to this station suddenly surfaced at the end of April 1945, when everything was quite hopeless for the Germans. Now, however, the station was heard from Norway, on 1010 metres longwave. In the last shaky minutes of the war a station somewhere in Eastern Norway had been established, complete with the Swedish editorial staff from Knigsberg. I heard it myself several times around April 25, as a newspaper article of April 23rd had informed that the station had been on the air for some days.Ó
Comment: The Wavelength table of Rżster i Radio for March 26th, 1944 has a listing of Rovaniemi on 1220 metres, 246 kHz. This was the domestic Finnish service. Their station in Rovaniemi opened September 19th, 1943.
Source 5: Dagens Nyheter April 23rd, 1945:
ÓNew ÓKnigsbergÓ in Southern Norway.
Picture: The actual newspaper article relating about Yngve Hugo detecting the ÓnewÓ Knigsberg.
ÓThe Germans have re-activated the Swedish-language programs on the radio, mainly with the same personnel that took care of the Knigsberg programs.
On Radiotjnst-where by the way chief director Yngve Hugo discovered the new transmitter- a direction finder has been used and the station is considered to be situated 265 degrees westwards from Stockholm, which should account for it being in Southern Norway, maybe Kristiansand.
A female speaker, whose voice was identified as one of the Knigsberg voices, announced a large concert. At 2215 hours there was a Swedish news bulletin. The entire program was in the old Knigsberg style, with two male speakers, also recognized from the Knigsberg voices.
The news bulletin mentioned GoebbelsŐ Saturday speech and mentioned Berlin as a front city and the target of the Red Army. The transmission was noted for its anti-Russian propaganda. The station transmits on the wavelength of 1010 metres and the call sign is ÓHallo Norden.Ó The news bulletin was later suddenly abrupted, and dance music continued, without there being further announcements.Ó
Source 6. Rster i Radio no.31, July 29th, 1945
Storstation p hjul. Propagandasndare avsljats.
In Rster i Radio July 29th, 1945 there was large coverage on the ÓNorwegianÓ Knigsbergradio. The explanation of how Knigsbergsradion as it was known in Swedish might be able to come back from Norway was now given. The journalist had gained approval to visit the site, and he was consequently let through the barbed wire while a machine gun was pointing at him.
Picture from Rster i Radio July 29th, 1945. Giant station on wheels. Propaganda station revealed. Is the road in the picture the old Tveten road?
ÓA 20 kilowatt mobile radiostation had been placed on a hill outside of Oslo, in 6 Mercedes 6-ton trucks complete with necessary equipment and a telescopic aerial being 46 metres high. When it was in operation, the cars would park side by side, and a gangway with ÓaccordeonÓ tarpaulin walls put up between each unit. One unit had a studio, as automated as possible, in order that amateurs might operate it if necessary. The transmitter mast was placed on the last car in the row. In addition a 13-ton car and six utility cars, with a workshop, etc. The station, only being able to use longwaves between 600 and 2000 metres, was possible to erect and be on the air after 2 1/2 hours. Frequency changes were done in 2 1/2 minutes.Ó
Picture from Rster i Radio July 29th, 1945.
The German Officer who proudly showed the station to the RiR-journalist indicated it had cost 2 1/2 Million Reichsmark. Goebbels was the information genius of Hitler and even that early prepared the propaganda offensive necessary for the coming German expansion. He also said that the Germans had six larger mobile transmitters as well as twelve ligther ones for Medium Waves. It was said that they also had 100 kW-transmitters in railway wagons.
Picture from Rster i Radio July 29th, 1945. The Mercedes trucks are lined up.
When the Swedish journalist asked why the transmitters had been built already 1937, the Lieutnant replied that it was for transmissions from Parteitagen and Óother strange happenings in the countryÓ.
Picture from Rster i Radio July 29th, 1945. Drawing of Rovaniemi/Radio Norden Longwave station.
ÓI am sure you didnŐt need so many transmitters for this use? WasnŐt it rather an unit for defence purposes?Ó Then the Lieutnant laughed.Ó
The proud station caretaker also said the station had not only been used in Rovaniemi as ÓSoldatensender LapplandÓ, but before that on an island off the Dutch Coast!Ó
Comment: The photo coverage of Rster i Radio from July 29th, 1945 shows more radio masts than the one that belonged to the Rovaniemi equipment according to a drawing in the same magazine.
Source 7. From Radiodx.com and ÓKurierÓ. http://www.radiodx.com/spdxr/german_army_r.htm
ÓIn 1942, a mobile radio station, housed in 7 seven railway vans, was taken to Rovianemi (ROE-vee-AH-na-mee) in Finland where it was placed on air from the German army barracks 10 kms out of town. This army entertainment station was on the air for nearly three years.
The daily schedule from Laplandsender consisted of variety programming, news bulletins, and Finnish language lessons. The final broadcast from this unit was in November 1944.
When German forces withdrew from Finland to Norway, they took their mobile radio station with them. However, after a further withdrawal, the station was abandoned and it is now on display in the Radio Museum in Bergen, Norway.Ó
Ó Lapland German mobile transmitters in reserve;
Lapland Sender at Rovaniemi 1942-November 1944,
Studio & offices in barracks.
10 kM from Rovaniemi in 7 railway wagons,
1 1st stage
2 1st stage
4 Final stage
6 Antenna and masts
7 Longwave antenna
Variety programming, news, Finnish language lessons; Kurier
Last broadcast Nov 1944, withdrawn to Norway.
Abandoned in Bergen, now in Radio Museum.Ó
Comment: The information above that this transmitter went to the Bergen Radio Museum at LKB Bergen Kringkaster is very probably not correct. A search has been done by the author at LKB Askży, at Bergen Technical Museum and a query has also been sent Bergen Military Vehicles Assocation with no reply. 
Source 8. DX-ListenersŐClub, Norway. The late Bernt Erfjord.
From ÓNorske Kringkastingsendere.Ó(Norwegian Broadcasting Stations, about mostly vintage Norwegian AM Transmitters. ŠBernt Erfjord, DXLC 1996 rev.2012 by this writer.)
lesund, Vigra: 623230N/060324E. Call sign LKA.
Ó1945-1948: 20 kW German mobile field station, that came from Finland, captured by Norwegian Forces after the war. Consisted of mobile units driven near each other with a roof added. If the Montreux Plan had been activated, Vigra would have used 708 kHz. However, it was logged in Sweden on 629 kHz in October 1945. (Rżster i Radio 43/45)But Longwave 282 kHz is mentioned in list from 1946, this also being the frequency late 1945. 1947: 629 kHz 20 kW. (This is the frequency from the Copenhagen Plan not officially implemented before March 15th, 1950!)
Source 9. Just Quigstad:
ÓÉAfter the war the reserve transmitter of 1 KW, was substituted by a 20 kW mobile broadcast station taken over by the Germans. The booty, originally from Finland, consisted of several mobile units that were linked and a roof was built over them. This started transmissions at Vigra as LKA from Oct. 25th, 1945, synchronized with Bergen I on LW 282 kHz. From 1947 on 629 kHz.Ó
Comment: The Wavelength table of Rżster i Radio for March 10th, 1946 has LKA Vigra still on 629 kHz, synchronized with LKT Trondheim-Tyholt. LKB Bergen is the only one listed on 282 kHz.
Source 10. ÓNRKs tekniske tjeneste og beredskapstjenestenÓ, by Oeystein Halvorsen, in ÓKringkastingens tekniske historie. En artikkelsamlingÓ, p.272-273. NRK 1999ŠISBN 82-7118-260-9.
In this book, what was Station ÓLÓ is dealt with under the subject of reserve transmitters after the war. No mention is made of any appearance at LKA Vigra or LKB Bergen. The complete station was mothballed in a garage at Nordseter, Lillehammer. The Telegrafverket(later: Televerket, Telenor) took it for granted than they owned it. In 1949, 3 of the trucks, including the one with the temporary antenna, were sold on the civilian market. An inspection was held the next year, and established that 6 of the units, including the transmitter and permanent antenna were intact. In addition, a diesel generator truck was found at Raufoss, with considerable damage.
A lot of discussion followed regarding ownership, use and responsibility, and it was not before 1954 that the Defence Staff decided the station to be given to the NRK complete and cost free.
Then it was up to the NRK to continue the discussions. Some of the ideas for use that came up were reserve for LKO Lambertseter 218 kHz(later at Kloefta) or as a new relay for the NRK at Andoeya in Northern Norway.
It would appear that nothing at all came out of this, and what was the 2,5 Million Mark Station ÓLÓ , now at LKF in Fredrikstad, was scrapped in the early 60s.
Comment: The story is not unlike what happened to 200 kW LKO Kloefta 216 kHz where the two towers were felled 1995, or the sad fate of most of the Decca station sites from 1998 onwards. It would seem that many decision makers and bureaucrats cannot have had a clear understanding of the potential of AM broadcasting, and what it could mean for the country.
Picture: Station L was mothballed after the war. Picture: The late Erik JulsrudŐs collection.
Source 11. HitlerŐs Airwaves
The book HitlerŐs Airwaves(ÓThe inside book of Nazi Radio Broadcasting and Propaganda SwingÓ) might describe some of the background of the above story. In chapter 8: ÓThe Battle StationsÓ and Radio ArnhemÓ(The latter also heard by Jan Erik Rf) it is indicated on p.224 that Óseveral mobile transmitters were establishedÉin co-operation with units of the Wehrmacht propaganda Department(OKW/WPr) and the ÓSS-Standarte Kurt EggersÓ, which had a broadcasting section of its ownÉÓ(Horst J.P.Bergmeier and Rainer E.Lotz: HitlerŐs Airwaves, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT/London, UK, ISBN 0-300-06709-7)
Source 12. The Niclas Sennerteg contribution.
In 2006, Swedish journalist Niclas Sennerteg published his comprehensive work on the Knigsbergradio:Ó Tyskland talar, Hitlers svenska radiostationÓ.
Most of the book deals with the main stages of the Knigsberg radio from the start on Nov.20th, 1939, but from Chapter 9, Sennerteg deals with ÓThe last faithfulÓ, and describes how two Swedish pro-Nazis ÓescapesÓ to Norway in late 1944 in order to volunteer for work on the Knigsbergradio, at that time located in Danzig. A fortnight after installed behind the microphone in todayŐs Gdansk, their motives may also have been a growing understanding that Germany would lose the war, and a strong wish to stand up against Bolshevism.
Sennerteg notes that the Swedish transmissions ceased on January 25th or 26th, 1945 due to a direct hit at the transmitter site by Soviet artillery fire.
A turbulent evacuation ensued a couple of days later, and after an unsucessful restart of the service on Short Wave from the Reichsender main studios in Masurenalee in Berlin, transmissions from Hamburg(ÓLord Haw-HawÓ site Norden?-editor)were contemplated. This also came to nothing and the remaining Swedes in German service thought that the last had been heard of the Knigsbergradio.
As Bernd-Andreas Mller (see Source 2, above) notes, in late 1944 the former ÓSoldatensender NordlandÓ had been sent through Norway by ship, car and then train to Oslo after it arrived in occupied Narvik from Rovaniemi. In January 1945 it was then Óset up in Hellerud on a hillÓ. Then in approx. the beginning of February 1945 Mller notes the transmission of the Sweden(presumably a relay of the Knigsberg program, editor) program on 297 kHz.
In his Chapter 10: Comeback in Norway, Sennerteg then has the remaining Swedish personnell Gsta Martin, Ingrid Schlack and the two ÓfugitivesÓ mentioned above, Knut Stenborg and Vilhelm Dahlquist arriving in Oslo March 28th, 1945, perhaps the start of April. At Tveita, they were joined by a Swedish SS-officer, Gsta Borg, whose voice many times earlier had been heard on the Knigsbergradio, as he had been a war correspondent on the Eastern front, having covered the Jewish revolt in Warshaw 1944.
With these 5, the last episode of the Knigsbergradio started on Longwave 1010 metres on April 15th, 1945. The Svenska Dagbladet with an unkown source already had forecasted the return of the station in its April 8th edition.
On April 22nd, the transmissions were discovered by the Radio Office of the Swedish Foreign Office(triggered by the dxing of Yngve Hugo of Radiotjnst, see above?-editor)and the day after, Dagens Nyheter reported the station back on the air, ÓeventuallyÓ from Kristiansand, as Hugo told the newspaper.
How were these last programs of this strange radio station on the east side of Oslo in the last weeks of WW2? We hand back to Dagens Nyheter on April 23rd, 1945:
ÓEn kvinnlig hallman, vars rst identifierades som en av
Knigsbergs-stmmorna,(Ingrid Schlack, editor) annonserade en stor konsert. Kl.
22.15 sndes nyheter p svenska. Hela programmet gick i gammal Knigsbergsstil,
med tv manliga upplsare vilka kndes igen frn Knigsbergssndningarna.
Nyhetssndningen anknt till Goebbels lrdagstal och sysslade med Berlin som frontstad och kampml fr de rda armerna. Sndningen prglades av antirysk propaganda... Nyheterna avbrts mitt i
en mening, och programmet fortsatte senare med dansmusik, utan att stationen annonserades.Ó
In the minutes of the investigation in Sweden after the war, Gsta Martin is described as having had Ódaily lecturesÓ on the radio station warning aginst Óthe red dangerÓ and a Óthird world war.Ó
On April 24th, the Swedish newspaper Aftontidningen reported that Allied reports now were read in newscasts without comments except that the speaker added Óhe did not have any German standpoint to report regarding this informationÓ.
On April 27th, 1945, at 2215 hours, the Radio Office of the Swedish Foreign Office noted this statement by the station:
ÓVad vr mnadslnga tystnad betrffar behver vi vl
knappast spilla s mnga ord hrp, ty det skulle vara barnsligt av oss att
frdlja, att det var militra skl som tvang oss att inhibera sndningarna.Vi
skall icke hr i detalj skildra ett militrt hndelsefrlopp. Det fr vara nog
med att faststlla, att vi stodo samlade p vr post in i det sista, varmed
menas, att vi ej vergav vr dvarande sndare frrn den blev
pltsligt obrukbar. Att vi icke frberedde vra lyssnare p avbrottet berodde sledes p skl som lgo utanfr varje kontroll frn vr sida. Att vr frd frn stra Tyskland till relativt lugnare nejder blev en smula spnnande ha vi ej ngon anledning att hemlighlla.Ó
On April 29th, 1945, at 2000 hours, the Radio Office of the Swedish Foreign Office noted the station rejected the runours that Hitler was dying and that Himmler was trying to negotiate a separate peace with the allies. There had been no German revolt in Bavaria, but he speaker had to admit Mussolini had been excecuted.
Even if the news of HitlerŐs death dawned also on Tveita on May 1st, the Knigsbergradio continued its transmissions warning against Communist expansion. The Soviet Union would occupy Northern Norway and Sweden, create a ÓLaplandÓ Soviet Republic and demand fleet bases further south.
The two coming days, the Swedish Government was praised, having been able to keep SwedenŐs Óstate ship unhurt through the hundreds of breakers it has had to passÓ wishing the government great success in the future.
But even if the female member of the editorial staff thought Germany would be winning until one hour before the capitulation, the staff now did their utmost to escape from the hill at Hellerud.
On May 7th, 1945 at 2000 hours the final broadcast took place: First an address by one of the Grossadmiral Dnitz cabinet ministers(Schwerin von Krosigk) was referred to and then the Óterrible newsÓ Ówe all have been expectingÓ was broadcast, of GermanyŐs capitulation without terms. The speaker did not think Germany by this would be going under, but he stated the war had been won by the states Óthat had access to unlimited human resources and had the raw material without which no war may be waged.Ó
The final words on 297 kHz said:
ÓNu lgger vr radio ned sin rst, ty vi anse det
meningslst att fortstta vra utsndningar.Vi tackar vra lyssnare fr den
vnskap och den uppmrksamhet, de sknkt oss, och varp vi fatt s mnga bevis.
P terseende, kra lyssnare. Vi sger med avsikt inte "farvl", ty vi tror, att vi frr eller senare p det ena eller andra sttet kommer att terknyta vra frbindelser genom etern. Men lt oss nu i detta allvarliga gonblick hylla alla dem, som under dessa hrda r stupat i kampen fr sitt land. Det m vara fr Tyskland, England eller Amerika eller ngon av de andra nationer, som av ett hrt de dragits in i detta olyckliga krig. I djup vrdnad bja vi vra huvuden.Ó
Then the station broadcast mourning music until it became silent. The day afterthe German forces in Norway surrendered, and Mller (see Source 2, above) notes the station was taken over by British troops and remained in Tveita.
In July, 1945(Source 6, above) a Rster i Radio journalist visited the station and found it guarded by Milorg troops but still with German troops as caretakers.
And the broadcast staff? Well, all the Swedes already with their suitcases packed, were driven in haste to the railway station in Oslo, boarded the Stockholm train at 2215, on May 7th, 1945, nervous not to reach the Swedish border before the German capitulation also in Norway was a fact.
But this they did. They were all interrogated by the Swedish Security Police, but did not have to face further consequences for their service to Hitler.
Source 13: Robert Muhrman, formerly of Televerket(1950-1988) relates the following story (see also Source 7-10 above):
In autumn 1945 the former Knigsbergradio trucks and equipment arrived at Vigra Broadcasting station and stayed there in the capable hands of Chief Engineer Petter Blindheim until the new permanent station there had been built in 1948. 20 kW was indeed a better transmitter than the pre-war original 1kW. The newer American transmitter had been bombed in April, 1940.
Now more peaceful programs were being broadcast from the truck station. If the Montreux plan had been implemented it would be on Medium Wave 708 kHz, however, everything points to Longwave 282 kHz being used(listener report, 1945, listing March 1946). Then somewhat premature, we find the station on 629 Khz from 1947, the channel also the new permanent Vigra would use from 1948, officially the stationŐs frequency in the Copenhagen plan of March 15th, 1950.
Picture: ÓStation LÓ 1971: ÓNorwayŐs final spoils of war after the German occupants changed hands when Fredrikstad Radio Station sold six of seven large Mercedes diesel cars from HitlerŐs Rundfunksender Nordland to Fish and Ships Gear A/S. The solid cars with 100 h.p.motors composed a complete field-radio station, which was first used in Finland, later at Vigra and finally in Fredrikstad, where it, after the war, has served as a reserve station. The Radio Station kept the 7th car because it contained a large aggregate which could come in handy. The cars had been unused for 25 years when the the owner started them up after installing new 12 volt batteries.Ó Picture: Norwegian Pictorial Review (Norgesrevyen)1971. –The brief ÓadventureÓ of this radio station in Oslo 1945 seems quite unknown here, editor. The Fredrikstad AM 1578 kHz aerial is visible in this picture.
Muhrman continues: ŇThe first car, a seven-seat Mercedes was converted to a lorry and was used for many years by Televerket. The former German station was driven to Fredrikstad Broadcasting Station. It was not a good storage place, though, and it deteriorated quickly. Incidentially, aerial workers of Televerket lived in Moelven barracks at the site at ra during winter time. When what had been a German propaganda sender was sold 1971 the diesel generator(one car) was kept, together with some other parts.Ó
Picture: News item from DX-Radio 1944 about Soldatensenders Kolibri, Aten and Mittelmeer.
A long-wave station previously used in Rovaniemi, Finland, was established at Hellerud near Tveten grd in the Aker municipality near Oslo towards the end of WW2 and used for Knigsbergradio programs. It announced itself as ÓHallo NordenÓ, and broadcast on 297 khz, 1010 metres longwave.
But during these troubled years, the occupants of course could have established the stations and used the frequencies they wanted.
Two stations from the same site might be indicated by the information from the Godlia source of Medium Wave reception in 1942. (However, reception so near the site might have been a harmonic of the original signal, then likely to appear at least on 594 kHz Medium Wave)
If there was another station at Tveita it might have been a ÓSoldatensenderÓ or a station relaying a regular German service from Óthe ReichÓ, such as Deutschlandsender.
The station was used as part of the NRK domestic network shortly after the war, but after this Norwegian authorities for over 15 years never managed to come up with any decision for use, and eventually scrapped it.
Picture: Tveten farm, Tveten Road no. 101 in pre-war years. In the background downhill the villages of Godlia and Hoeyenhall to the left, and Bryn to the right. The lighter field in the lower right corner was the Hellerud (aka the Tveten fields)location of Station L towards the end of the war. The actual site as a whole is not in the picture, but indications are that one of the antenna masts was located near the road in the picture. By kind permission from Groruddalen historielagŠ.
Picture: Tveten farm, Tveten Road no. 101 in 1960. Oslo is growing and has swallowed Aker Municipality. The servantsŐ house of Tveten farm is in the left, and Bryn School is in the middle of the picture. This picture clearly shows the remnants of Station L, with much concrete such as guy wire foundations, house walls and shelters. It was impossible to revert the area to farmland. By kind permission from Groruddalen historielagŠ.
Appendix: Swedish reviews of Niclas Sennerteg:
Tyskland talar. Hitlers svenska radiostation
Book and CD Published by Historiska media, Lund, 2006.
info (at) historiskamedia.se
1. God afton, det r Tyskland som talar
Under andra vrldskriget fanns det en tysk radiosndare som hette Knigsberg och snde pfallande bra musik. Nr Hitler intog Warszawa, spelades till exempel oavbrutet Beethovens strkkvartetter och Mozarts symfonier. Ibland snde Knigsbergsradion ven p svenska, och nr hallmannen intrumfat i oss nordbor att ŇHitler var vsterlandets skraste vrnÓ mot Ňbolsjeviker, judar och annat jordens avskumÓ, spelade man fr skerhets skull ven Hugo Alfvn och Kurt Atterberg.
I en intressant och noggrant dokumenterad bok Tyskland talar har journalisten Niclas Sennerteg kartlagt Knigsbergsradions verksamhet. Egendomligt nog satt redaktionen sllan i Knigsberg, det vill sga nuvarande Kaliningrad, utan hll fr det mesta till i Berlin. Dr kmpade propagandaministeriet under Goebbels och utrikesministeriet under Ribbentrop sinsemellan om kontrollen ver de utlndska sndningarna. Ty vrldskriget skulle vinnas inte bara p slagflten utan ocks i etern. Och d gllde det att lgga orden rtt fr att vinna sympatier fr en tysk nyordning i Europa.
Sennerteg har lagt ner stor mda p att spra de svenska medarbetare som redigerade materialet och som satt vid mikrofonerna och lste. Det rrde sig om exilsvenskar, som av en eller annan anledning hamnat i Berlin och endera var nazister eller ocks lyckskare och vilsekomna existenser i strsta allmnhet. I en avslutande frteckning noteras 40-talet namn; Thorolf Hillblad, Elin Svensson, Anna-Lisa Gerloff, Rolf von Nauckhoff, Gsta Richter och allt vad de hette.
Yrkena var mnga: journalister, skdespelare, officerare, versttare, affrsmn, hemmafruar, sngare och musiker. Sennerteg fljer deras livsden in i detalj och s lngt kllorna ger besked. Ibland vxer personintresset ut och blir nstan ett sjlvndaml, en smula pfrestande fr lsaren.
Med skiftande framgng frskte tyskarna anpassa nazipropagandan efter den svenska opinionen. Det hade sina sidor att f svenskarna att frst att finnar och tyskar alltid var de bsta vapenbrder eller att Norge och Danmark invaderades bara fr att frekomma en engelsk ockupation. Eller att Hitler och Stalin ena dagen samsades i den staste samfrstndspakt fr att nsta dag bekmpa varandra p liv och dd!
Intressant nog syftade propagandan sllan till att underblsa Lindholmarna eller andra naziorganisationer p svensk mark. Man njde sig med att gra svenskarna i strsta allmnhet tyskvnliga och frvissade om Tredje rikets oundvikliga slutseger.
Nr bomberna brjade regna ver Berlin flyttade redaktionen fr en kort tid ver till Knigsberg i Ostpreussen. Och nr det sedan brjade osa hett ven dr, flyttade man - hr och hpna! - till Norge, dr man i det lngsta snde frn en sndare utanfr Oslo.
Nr s det tusenriga rikets saga var frbi tervnde Knigsbergsradions medarbetare slokrade hem till Sverige. Den ene tog sig fr att skta en hnsfarm i Smland, den andre blev portier p Karlstads stadshotell, och grevinnan Dagmar Kronstedt gick och gifte sig med blivande Nobelpristagaren Ulf von Euler. Ingen av dem blev straffad, ty landsfrrdare kunde de omjligen kallas. Sverige hade ju aldrig varit i krig med Nazityskland, ngon fiende fanns fljaktligen inte. Och rtten att ha fel sikter r som bekant helig i en demokrati.
2. Svenskar snde Hitlers radio
Med radions hjlp kunde Nazityskland fra fram sin propaganda i svenskarnas vardagsrum. Niclas Sennerteg har skildrat Knigsbergsradion och svenskarna som lnade ut sina rster till den.
P 30- och 40-talet var radion ett viktigt stt att n ut till allmnheten.(Unknown photographer.)
Ingen vet hur mnga svenskar som den 20 november 1939 fick fr sig att stlla in sin radio p 291 meter p mellanvgsbandet. Den som till ventyrs gjorde det kunde, fr frsta gngen, hra en ljus, ung rst som harklade sig och sade: "Hall Norden, hr talar Tyskland!"
Den som lnade sin stmma till Nazitysklands nystartade propagandasndningar p svenska var den d drygt tjugorige Thorolf Hillblad, svensk studerande i Berlin, medlem av det svenska nazistpartiet SSS och senare frivillig p stfronten. Sverige hade ftt sin egen Lord Haw-Haw, som var knamnet p den mest knde radiofrrdaren under kriget, William Joyce, vars dryga radiorst mnga engelsmn med ckelfascination lyssnade till kriget ut. Hillblad och hans kolleger ndde dock aldrig samma notoriska status som denne. Sjlv kom Hillblad ihop sig med radiochefen Eichert och lmnade 1941 radiosndningarna fr Waffen-SS. Men han var bara en av mnga mrkliga existenser som passerade revy framfr radiomikrofonen innan stationen packade ihop i samband med tyskarnas kapitulation i Norge i maj 1945. D hade man flyttat sig undan slutstriden och snde frn en mobil station utanfr Oslo.
Om "Knigsbergsradion", som den ocks kallades, har Nicklas Sennerteg skrivit en bitvis skrmmande, bitvis nstan galghumoristisk skildring, "Tyskland talar: Hitlers svenska radiostation". Sennerteg verkar ha grvt i alla arkiv och talat med alla, inklusive Thorolf Hillblad sjlv, en av de f frn radiostationen som nnu r i livet, nu i sydamerikansk exil.
De svenska sndningarna var bara en liten del av den enorma propagandaapparat som huserade i Berlins radiohus, dr man snde p ver tjugo sprk via sndare placerade p olika hll i Europa. Alltsammans sorterade under Goeb bels propagandaministerium, ett av mnga exempel p hur nazipropagandan frstod att anvnda modern teknik. De svenska sndningarna var i regel en halvtimmes till en timmes "nyheter" och "aktualitetsprogram" med inlsta rapporter frn fronten eller skildringar av dagligt liv i Tredje riket. Sennerteg frdjupar sig inte s mycket i innehllet, och sjlva programmen finns inte heller bevarade. Men en del gr att rekonstruera, som den antisemitiska propaganda som redan frn brjan var ett huvudnummer.
Som mnga andra historiska reportage av det hr slaget blir "Tyskland talar" ibland vl minutis. Olika personalomflyttningar och omorganisationer skildras pliktskyldigt. Men det hindrar inte att boken lgger en viktig bit till bilden av Sverige under kriget. Inte minst nr det gller medlperiets psykologi.
Det som intresserat Sennerteg mest r de mnniskor som skte sig till "Knigsbergsradion". En del, som skdespelaren Gsta Richert, var rena opportunister som skte en karrir i "det nya Tyskland". Han hade redan hemma i Sverige medverkat i den antisemitiska filmen "Panik" (1938) och gjort sig omjlig, och kom att eftertrda Hillblad som frste radiopratare. Nr han efter kriget kom hem till Sverige var karriren mycket riktigt ver och han fick hanka sig fram p strjobb.
Ett annat och intressantare namn var Brita Bager, ung societetsdam frn Kalmar, som drogs till Berlin av en gldande beundran fr Fhrern och allt tyskt. Bager deltog tydligen med liv och lust i Tredje rikets glansperiod, men runt 1943 brjade livet i Berlin bli hrt och hon for hem. I likhet med en annan avhoppare, Gsta Block, ville hon rentv sig genom att bertta vad hon visste. Intressant nog sade hon i en intervju med den brittiska tidningen Britsh Dispatch i september 1943 fljande:
"Precis som folk i gemen knner tyskarna nu till sanningen om de ockuperade omrdena. De inser ocks vad som egentligen hnt med judarna. De vet att nazisterna inte ens ansg att judarna var vrda att slsa kulor p, utan istllet anvnde gas fr att dda dem."
Den svensk som ville veta knde till detta sedan ett knappt r. Men Bagers uttalande r nnu en spik i kistan fr det gamla "vi visste ingenting"-tjatet.
Sennerteg berknar att som mest kanske s mnga som 10 procent av de svenska radiolyssnarna ibland tog in Knigsbergsradion. Och han beskriver trffande ett skikt av svenskar som stod redo att samarbeta med naziregimen, fr pengar, av ideologisk vertygelse eller bara fr att det var tjusigt. Somliga blev frltna, andra blev, som Gsta Richter, i princip svartlistade. Thorolf Hillblad sitter p ett lderdomshem i Sydamerika och skriver bcker dr han framstller sin ungdoms nazikretsar i ett gyllene skimmer.
Till skillnad frn vra grannlnder behvde vi aldrig hantera svra frgor om quislingar och hur de skulle behandlas. Sennertegs bok r ett stycke radiohistoria ur en svunnen tid, och skildringen av radiomiljerna har viss nostalgifaktor. Medlperifrgorna handlar dock om ett avsnitt av svensk historia dr det finns mycket kvar att tillgga.
Propaganda har i praktiken funnits sedan urminnes tider, men propaganda sompolitiskt medel anvndes fr frsta gngen vid frsta vrldskriget. Under andravrldskriget blev propaganda ett mycket viktigt psykologiskt vapen. Svl tyskarnasom de allierade anvnde sig av flera olika propagandakanaler fr att vinnaver folk p sin sida, eller fr att frvissa sig om att de redan vertygade skullebibehlla sina sikter. Tyskland talar handlar om Tysklands radiopropaganda,om lgnerna det svenska folket fick hra och om personerna bakom de anonymarsterna.
Klockan nio p kvllen den 20 november 1940 kunde svenska folket fr frstagngen hra den tyska radiopropagandan. Det var en svensk rst som basuneradeut sin stndpunkt i cirka 20 minuter. Lngre n s var inte radiosndningarnafrn brjan, men allteftersom skulle de vxa bde i antal och lngd. I den frstasndningen gjordes det klart fr det svenska folket att samtliga sndningar skulleprglas av en saklig rapportering s att lyssnarna kunde bilda sig en egen uppfattning.Dr betonades ocks de gemensamma banden mellan Sverige och Tyskland och man sade ppet att det inte var propaganda man sysslade med, men att manvar partisk. Som lyssnare fick man ocks veta att det var fienden och inte tyskarna som stod fr lgnerna. Programfrklaringen var en sanning med modifikation,och genom vad som i folkmun kom att kallas fr Knigsbergsradion anvndesotaliga propagandaknep som rena lgner, lsryckta citat och utelmnande avfakta. Radiorsterna var helt anonyma, ingen av dem ville g ut med sina riktiganamn. De var alla svenska och hade p ett eller annat stt vrvats av den tyskepropagandaministern Joseph Goebbels. Den frste svenska hallmannen var studentenThorolf Hillblad. Han varvade sina studier med radion och tjnade p sstt en extra slant. Nr han slutade tog den svenska skdespelaren Gsta Richtervid. Vid krigsslutet var det en rad personer som hade arbetat vid Knigsbergsradion,men ingen av dem fick ngot straff i egentlig mening.
Hur mnga det egentligen var som lyssnade p radiosndningarna r svrtatt sga, men antalet lyssnare kade efter hand och kanalen blev srskilt populrunder de r d det sg som mrkast ut fr Skandinavien. Den sista radiosndningengde rum strax fre krigsslutet.
Tyskland talar r en medryckande skildring av ena sidan lgnerna som komatt bli en del av svenskarnas vardag, andra sidan personerna bakom rsterna,hur de stllde sig till propaganda, hur vrvningen fungerade och vad som hndemed dem efter kriget. Niclas Sennerteg har kartlagt 20-30 personer som arbetadevid Knigsbergsradion i omgngar. Tyskland talar bygger p material ur etttidigare oknt radioarkiv i Berlin, SPO-akterna samt UD:s arkiv.
Niclas Sennerteg r frfattare och journalist, verksam p Bors Tidning och harven arbetat p Sveriges Radio i mnga r. P Historiska Media har han tidigaregett ut de bda uppmrksammade bckerna Stalins hmnd. Rda armn i Tyskland1944-1945 (2001) och Warszawas bdel (2003).
Inledningen till den frsta radiosndningen
Vi inleder idag vra sndningar p svenska och ber om er uppmrksamhet. Inteheller fr neutrala staters medborgare r det ltt att bilda sig en egen uppfattningom den politiska hndelseutvecklingen. Vi ska inte gra ngonting annat n attger er mjlighet att ocks hra den tyska stndpunkten tydligare och direktaren hittills i meddelandenas och sikternas stora radioorkester. Vi r medvetnaom att vi talar till ett neutralt lands medborgare, vilka i egenskap av Tyska riketsgrannar r sammanlnkade med oss via kulturens och ekonomins mest skildaband, men ven genom talrika personliga relationer frn mnniska till mnniska.Frvisso r vi part i mlet och vill absolut inte heller sticka under stol meddet. Vi har samma rttighet som de andra att gra vr rst hrd. Men den tyskaradion har inte fr vana - det har ni sjlva kanske redan konstaterat - att nuversa er med s kallad propaganda. Denna metod verlter vi t vra fiender,vilka flitigt gr bruk av de fantasifulla phittens frmenta privilegium och falskarapporter som motbevisats redan nsta dag. S flitigt, att den egna allmnnaopinionen redan opponerar sig drastiskt mot det, precis som ni strax kommer attf hra.
Vi kommer, framfr allt inom ramarna fr dessa tidsmssigt begrnsadesndningar, att inskrnka oss till att i saklig form ge er en verblick ver dagensviktigaste hndelser runtom i hela vrlden. Vi r vertygade om att ni sjlvakommer att bekrfta vr goda vilja nr ni, vilket vi hoppas, inte bara idag utangng p gng vid denna tidpunkt stller in er mottagare p frekvens - - rikssndareKnigsberg p svenska.
Vi r vertygade om att vi kommer att frst varandra. Vi hlsar er och inledervr sndning."
 Incorporating material from: ÓHallo NordenÓ, by(kind permission of) Bjżrn H. Syversen, Groruddalen historielag.Š E-mail: email@example.com http://www.grohi.com/aarboker/aarsoversikt.html#2004
 A full survey of these stations reveal:
Ľ Mobile Broadcast Transmitter, or Fahrbarer Rundfunksender I, II (in Spain), Ill, IV: large stations, medium wave, 20 kW
Ľ Mobile Broadcast Transmitter, or Fahrbarer Rundfunksender V: large station, long wave, 20 kW
Ľ Mobile Broadcast Transmitter, or Fahrbarer Rundfunksender A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I (mostly spelt wrongly with a J), K: smaller stations, medium wave, 20 kW
Ľ Mobile Broadcast Transmitter, or Fahrbarer Rundfunksender L, M, N, O, P, Q: smaller stations, long wave, 20 kW
Ľ Mobile Broadcast Transmitter, or Fahrbarer Rundfunksender Y: station built by a communications unit of German forces (Funkeinsatztrupp 17) in the occupied territories of the USSR, medium wave, 6 kW
Ľ Eisenbahnsender ,,Schwerstes Funkfeuer": train, long and medium wave, 100 kW, handing over to the German forces in spring 1945 (probably no regular transmissions)( Bernd-Andreas Mller, see Source 2)
 Translated: ÓYouth in the Grorud Valley during the war.Ó http://www.grohi.com/aarboker/aarsoversikt.html#1994
 Nearby at Skoeyenaasen, near the village of Oppsal, there was a large German Military Camp called Rosenbusch. This was an HQ for pioneer troops for Norway and Finland. There were also utility radio sites at Brannfjell(Kriegsmarine)Ekeberg plateau( 3 Luftwaffe stations, also used by Kriegsmarine)Merchant School, Ekeberg Restaurant, Oestmarksetra and a large 16-mast array at Boeler(Kriegsmarine). (Terje R.Diesen: Tysk okkupasjon av Sżndre Aker 1940-1945-Sżr i Aker 1989-1990, rbok for Sżndre Aker historielag)
 Published by Verlag Dr.Rdiger Walz, Alte Poststrasse 12, D-65510 Idstein, Germany. Phone: +49 61 26 99 26 26. Fax: Phone: +49 61 26 99 26 28. Email: ruediger.walz(at)t-online.de. Price: 25,00 Ű plus postage and packing. In this book there is an extensive apparatus of footnotes and sources. The sources for this part are: Knut Berger, Berlin; Bundesarchiv, Berlin; Bundesarchiv-Militrarchiv, Freiburg; Deutsches Rundfunkarchiv, Frankfurt(Main); ÓLappland-KurierÓ(newspaper ran by propaganda unit PK680).
 Gnther Heysing: ÓKriegseinsatz deutscher Rundfunkleute in Dnemark/Norwegen/Finnland 9.april 1940 bis 8.Mai 1945Ó, p.124,131
This document with several similar others of same author in Deutsches Rundfunkarchiv.
 Actually, the Swedish program of DES, "Die Deutschen Europasender" (name of the official external services of Reichsrundfunk for Europe) was transmitted via Heilsberg II (the second 100 kW transmitter in this East Prussian site [today's Polish name: Lidzbark Warminski]) at March 15th 1944 on the former frequency of Kattowitz [Polish name: Katowice] 868 kHz and via "WeichselÓ (Warschau-Raszyn, Polish name: Warszawa-
Raszyn) on 224 kHz with 120 kW. "Weichsel" was destroyed by the Germans on January 16th 1945(RiR 40/October 6th, 1945 had a picture of this site in ruins and intact); Heilsberg II was without modulation on January 25th and destroyed by German forces on January 31st 1945.(Bernd-Andreas Mller)
 See also another Swedish dxer Ullmar Quick relating about his encounter with the Knigsbergradio:
 Bernd-Andreas Mller
 Documents re. the Norwegian transmissions from Knigsberg were spotted in documents of Reichsministerium fr Volksaufklrung und Propaganda in the former Zentrales Staatsarchiv der DDR in Potsdam(signature 50.01). Now in Bundesarchiv in Berlin(signature R55).
 Bernd-Andreas Mller comments: ÓThe telescope masts and also the self radiating round steel masts of the mobile transmitters for long waves were temporary antennas only; the usual antenna systems for these frequencies consisted of three T antennas between three masts (named " Dreieckflchenantenne ").
 Kurier 11-12/2001
 Bernd-Andreas Mller also questions some of this information.
 The original frequency range of transmitter "L" was 136 to 500 kHz; perhaps it was changed later. (The transmitter "M"(Sender Martha/Soldatensender Monika(Belgium/later ex-USSR) was changed to MW in July 1945 in Germany.)( Bernd-Andreas Mller)
 The "Soldatensender Lappland" and all other German "Soldatensender" were radio stations for the German soldiers; while the battle stations in 1944/45 ("Amhem"; "Krautland calling"; "Radio 45"; "Jerry's Front Radio" etc.) were "Kampfsender"; propaganda stations targetted towards the Allied forces. Both kinds of stations have used mobile transmitters. (Bernd-Andreas Mller)
 Germany speaks, HitlerŐs Swedish Radio Station. Historiska Media, Lund, ISBN 91-85377-94-5.
 Sennerteg, p.192-
 Sennerteg, p.205-
 Spo interrogation June 9th, 1948.
 Radiobyrn, UD-FID/75.RA.
 Radiobyrn, UD-FID/75.RA.
 May 2nd at 2000 hours and May3rd at 2215 hours. Radiobyrn, UD-FID/75.RA.
 Radiobyrn, UD-FID/75.RA.
 See more on the broadcast staff in Appendix I and II, Sennerteg, p.247-
This picture is also found elsewhere on the web in this base:
Seek on ÓTvetenveien 101Ó. If you want to see the area from the air today via map OR picture, go to this base:
Seek on ÓTvetenveien 101Ó. You may enlarge and vary the maps and pictures as you please. Tveten farm still exists today, but is used by the municipality. Otherwise, the landscape is changed beyond recognition, with many roads, houses, blocks and a subway.
See also: ÓVelkommen til en vandring p Tveten grd.Ó(1998)
Tveten grds venner, Postbox 65, Tveita, N0617 Oslo or:
Bydel Hellerud, postbox 68, Haugerud, N0616 Oslo.