When the Knigsbergradio came to the farm.
If you come to NorwayÕs capital city Oslo, and take the subway line no.2 going eastwards to Ellingsrudsen, and then go off at Tveita station, youÕll be in the middle of a large suburban center, typical of many European countries.
Most of the large number of people going through the mall every day wonÕt have the slightest idea that just behind the centre, a very strange radio station was operated by the German Occupation Forces during the Second World War.
It was one of 23 mobile German broadcast stations spread across Europe, 22 in trucks and 1 in a train. The station we are dealing with in this essay was called Sender L or Transmitter L.<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]> Previously it was used in Rovaniemi in Finland, operating as Laplandsender.
Even if the station seems to have been mothballed after the Nazi regime was conquered and peace came to the European War Theatre, it was in existence all of summer 1945, and a smiling German Military Station Manager even proudly received foreign journalists pointing machine guns at them!
This then is what is known from several sources so far of the story of the Knigsbergradio at Tveten farm.
Source 1. A Crystal receiver in the loft. FromÓGroruddalsungdom i krigstidÓ, p.109.<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]> By kind permission from the author: Bj¿rn H. Syversen, Groruddalen historielag.
Karl-Henrik Amundsen, a former employe of Telenor has told about a German-controlled radio station operating in Oslo, Norway possibly from as early as 1942, when he was 15 years old.
This was not identical to the regular Oslo LKO Longwave station at nearby Lambertseter, operating on 260 kHz, also in German(ÓDer Osloer senderÓ) and Nazi Government hands at the time. The site was heavily guarded, and also had been equipped with jamming equipment.
The source received the transmissions on a self-built crystal receiver well hidden in the loft at his home in the village of Godlia. The propaganda transmissions were both in Norwegian and German, but mostly with a lot of dance music. The station identified as Radio Norden or similar.
Picture: Radio listening in the bunker. Typical German radio set for use in the field. Note the dial markers for German stations like the Knigsbergradio. This set was found in the Siegfried bunker in Bud.
The Godlia source also says that the German occupation forces established a Medium Wave broadcasting station at a field belonging to Tveten farm. Behind one of the large Tveita blocks today, there still is a large hill, that local people think may hide the remnants of a bunker, containing most of the installation. Visible were the three 60 metres custom-built wooden antenna masts, each wrapped with additional planks painted with two red and two white fields also having an inside ladder. Local kids dared to climb to the top after the Germans had left. As far as Mr.Amundsen can remember, the guy wires were cut and the towers felled relatively soon after Norway regained her freedom in May 1945. I do not know who did this, Milorg(The Resistance) or others, he added.
Incidentially, at this time, there were largely open fields between the radio station and GodliaÕs Stordam Road. A maid, living in one of the houses there, had a terrible experience late one night. She was abruptly awakened by a shot, and saw there was a bullet hole in the window. It emerged the Germans had a party<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]>, and drunken as they were, had their fun by firing shots in every direction. The bullet was later found in the girlÕs room.
Picture: Note the anti-Semitic tone in this typical ÓHave a think about itÓ poster issued by the NorwayÕs Quisling fascist government during WW2 warning against listening to the BBC.
Comment: Norwegians could not listen to the radio at this time without risking their freedom, and most radios had been confiscated since 1941. There were however, quite many illegal listeners, including publishers of illegal papers often listening to the news from ÓLondon RadioÓ(BBC in Norwegian).
Source 2. Diary of Sender L (Lappland). From ÓRundfunksender auf Rdern. Die fahrbaren Rundfunksendeanlagen der Deutschen Reichspost in den Jahren 1932 bis 1945"(2003)<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]> By kind permission from the author: Bernd-Andreas Mller, Chemnitz, Germany.
October 28th 1940: Check up by Post Office-RPZ.
January 1941: Measurements on DRP site in Teltow near Berlin; antenna tests on January 16th.
February 1941: Drive from Berlin via Magdeburg; Dsseldorf; Tilburg; Steenbergen to the Dutch island Schouwen in the Rhein-Schelde Estuary to be used as beacon "Schwerst-Funkfeuer Fritz.Ó
October 1942: Drive to Potsdam. On a train through Denmark and Sweden to Tornio in Lappland.
December 1942: Set up of transmitter 10 km SE of Rovaniemi on the road to Ranua and of studios in a barrack in Korvanniemi, approx. 3 km S of the centre of Rovaniemi.
December15th 1942: Start of test transmissions.
December 24th 1942: At 19:30 hrs the official start of "Soldatensender LapplandÓ; ran by a propaganda unit (PK 680). Transmissions from an outside broadcast vehicle. Antenna between two wooden masts. Power supply from a diesel engine.Three days transmissions, then break to December 31st 1942.
January 10th 1943: Barrack destroyed by fire. At 17:00 hrs transmissions from a temporary studio in a farm house.
The ÓLappland-KurierÓ of the PK 680 mentioned these transmission hours: 12:30 to 15:30 and 20:00 (Sundays also19:00) to 23:00 (Saturdays also 24:00) hrs on 297 kHz.
Approx. May 1943: Connection with the Rovaniemi power plant.
End of May 1943: Transmission times on 297kHz now 06:00 (Sundays 07:00) to 08:00; 12:30 to 15:30 and 20:00 (Sundays 19:00) to 23:00 (Saturdays 24:00) hrs.
Beginning of September 1943: According to a schedule "Soldatensender LapplandÓ transmitting 06:30 to 08:00 (Sundays 07:00 to 09:00); 12:30 to 15:30 and 18:30 (Sundays 18:00) to 23:30 (Saturdays 24:00) hrs on 297 kHz.
Approx. 1944: Often music to 04:00 hrs as beacon for the air force.
February 20th 1944: Connection with the German modulation cable network via Knigsberg-lnsterburg-Tilsit-Schaulen-Riga-Pernau-Reval-Rohuneeme-Porkkala-Helsinki. There was also a connection to the Finnish modulation cable network.
February 23rd 1944: The "Lappland-KurierÓ reported cuts of transmission times in the last weeks because of technical problems. Now transmissions 06:00 to 08:00, 12:00 to 15:30 and 21:00 to 01:00 hrs on 297 kHz.
End of April 1944: New schedule: 06:30 to 08:00 (Sundays 07:00 to 09:00), 13:00 (Sundays 13:30) to 14:30 and 20:00 (Sundays 19:00) to 23:00 hrs on 297 kHz.
Beginning of July 1944: Now transmissions 06:00 to 08:00 (Sundays 07:00 to 09:00), 12:00 to 15:30 and 18:00 to 24:00 hrs on 297 kHz.
Approx. September 1944: Start of Finnish language news.
Not later as mid-October 1944: Drive to Troms¿, then to Narvik, then with ship to Mosj¿en. Drive to Drontheim(Trondheim) in heavy snow. From Drontheim on a train to Oslo.
January 1945: Set up in Hellerud on a hill.
Approx. the beginning of February 1945: Transmission of the Sweden program on 297 kHz. Antenna: probably 3 T-antennas on 3 steel or wooden masts, a Ó Dreieckflchenantenne.Ó Studio in southern Norway.
May 8th 1945: Surrender of German forces in Norway, station taken over by British troops and remains there.
Comment: Shortwave transmissions with the title ÓFrohe Musik nach Mitternacht auf kurzer WelleÓ are documented in February 1944.<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]>
Source 3. Rster i Radio Winter 1943.
ÓJust before the New Year a new Soldatensender appeared on Short-and Longwaves. The Longwave station is not too strong in Stockholm, but has a very good signal into Norrbotten. The shortwave signals on 25,4 and 45,5 metres are well heard in Stockholm, but are not logged in Northern Sweden so far.
Programming is light, and consists of gramophone jazz, ouvertures, musical potpourris, radio drama, as well as re-transmissions of Deutschlandsender and the Wehrmachtbericht. One is not sure of the location of this sender, but it might be in Troms¿, Bod¿, Vads¿ or elsewhere in Northern Norway.Ó
Picture: The actual Rster i Radio article(21/1943?) relating about Laplandsender in 1943.
Comment: Rster i Radio is the Swedish equivalent to ÓRadio TimesÓ and ÓProgrambladetÓ.
Source 4. Jan Erik Rf, Arctic Radio Club, Sweden
From MV-DXingens historia: MV-DXingens historia fram till 1950-talet:
ÓSwedish listeners were towards the end of 1943 able to receive a new Longwave station on 1010 metres calling itself Soldatensender Lappland. In the county of Norrbotten the reception quality was good, but it also used some Short Wave transmitters that were possible to hear from more Southern locations. It targetted German soldiers stationed in Norway and Finland. It broadcast a lot of gramophone records, but also re-transmitted Deutschlandsender in Berlin as well as the inevitable Wehrmachtbericht, the war news.ÓÉ
From MV-DXingens historia: Andra vrldskrigets slut:
ÓHier spricht der KnigsbergsradioÓ/
Hr talar Knigsbergsradion
Another example of the will to fight is what happened to the Swedish programs transmitted from Knigsberg in East Prussia, today known as the Russian enclave of Kaliningrad, on 868 and 224 kHz.<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]>
When the Soviet Army captured the city, a substitute to this station suddenly surfaced at the end of April 1945, when everything was quite hopeless for the Germans. Now, however, the station was heard from Norway, on 1010 metres longwave. In the last shaky minutes of the war a station somewhere in Eastern Norway had been established, complete with the Swedish editorial staff from Knigsberg. I heard it myself several times around April 25, as a newspaper article of April 23rd had informed that the station had been on the air for some days.Ó
Comment: The Wavelength table of R¿ster i Radio for March 26th, 1944 has a listing of Rovaniemi on 1220 metres, 246 kHz. This was the domestic Finnish service. Their station in Rovaniemi opened September 19th, 1943.<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]>
Source 5: Dagens Nyheter April 23rd, 1945:
ÓNew ÓKnigsbergÓ in Southern Norway.
Picture: The actual newspaper article relating about Yngve Hugo detecting the ÓnewÓ Knigsberg.
ÓThe Germans have re-activated the Swedish-language programs on the radio, mainly with the same personnel that took care of the Knigsberg programs.
On Radiotjnst-where by the way chief director Yngve Hugo discovered the new transmitter- a direction finder has been used and the station is considered to be situated 265 degrees westwards from Stockholm, which should account for it being in Southern Norway, maybe Kristiansand.
A female speaker, whose voice was identified as one of the Knigsberg voices, announced a large concert. At 2215 hours there was a Swedish news bulletin. The entire program was in the old Knigsberg style<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]>, with two male speakers, also recognized from the Knigsberg voices.
The news bulletin mentioned GoebbelsÕ Saturday speech and mentioned Berlin as a front city and the target of the Red Army. The transmission was noted for its anti-Russian propaganda. The station transmits on the wavelength of 1010 metres and the call sign is ÓHallo Norden.Ó The news bulletin was later suddenly abrupted, and dance music continued, without there being further announcements.Ó
Source 6. Rster i Radio no.31, July 29th, 1945
Storstation p hjul. Propagandasndare avsljats.
In Rster i Radio July 29th, 1945 there was large coverage on the ÓNorwegianÓ Knigsbergradio. The explanation of how Knigsbergsradion as it was known in Swedish might be able to come back from Norway was now given. The journalist had gained approval to visit the site, and he was consequently let through the barbed wire while a machine gun was pointing at him.
Picture from Rster i Radio July 29th, 1945. Giant station on wheels. Propaganda station revealed.
ÓA 20 kilowatt mobile radiostation had been placed on a hill outside of Oslo, in 6 Mercedes 6-ton trucks complete with necessary equipment and a telescopic aerial being 46 metres high. When it was in operation, the cars would park side by side, and a gangway with ÓaccordeonÓ tarpaulin walls put up between each unit. One unit had a studio, as automated as possible, in order that amateurs might operate it if necessary. The transmitter mast was placed on the last car in the row. In addition a 13-ton car and six utility cars, with a workshop, etc. The station, only being able to use longwaves between 600 and 2000 metres, was possible to erect and be on the air after 2 1/2 hours. Frequency changes were done in 2 1/2 minutes.Ó
Picture from Rster i Radio July 29th, 1945.
The German Officer who proudly showed the station to the RiR-journalist indicated it had cost 2 1/2 Million Reichsmark. Goebbels was the information genius of Hitler and even that early prepared the propaganda offensive necessary for the coming German expansion. He also said that the Germans had six larger mobile transmitters as well as twelve ligther ones for Medium Waves. It was said that they also had 100 kW-transmitters in railway wagons.
Picture from Rster i Radio July 29th, 1945. The Mercedes trucks are lined up.
When the Swedish journalist asked why the transmitters had been built already 1937, the Lieutnant replied that it was for transmissions from Parteitagen and Óother strange happenings in the countryÓ.
Picture from Rster i Radio July 29th, 1945. Drawing of Rovaniemi/Radio Norden Longwave station.
ÓI am sure you didnÕt need so many transmitters for this use? WasnÕt it rather an unit for defence purposes?Ó Then the Lieutnant laughed.Ó
The proud station caretaker also said the station had not only been used in Rovaniemi as ÓSoldatensender LapplandÓ, but before that on an island off the Dutch Coast!Ó
Comment: The photo coverage of Rster i Radio from July 29th, 1945 shows more radio masts than the one that belonged to the Rovaniemi equipment according to a drawing in the same magazine.<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]>
Source 7. From AWR Bandscan and ÓKurierÓ.
ÓIn 1942, a mobile radio station, housed in 7 seven railway vans, was taken to Rovianemi (ROE-vee-AH-na-mee) in Finland where it was placed on air from the German army barracks 10 kms out of town. This army entertainment station was on the air for nearly three years.
The daily schedule from Laplandsender consisted of variety programming, news bulletins, and Finnish language lessons. The final broadcast from this unit was in November 1944.
When German forces withdrew from Finland to Norway, they took their mobile radio station with them. However, after a further withdrawal, the station was abandoned and it is now on display in the Radio Museum in Bergen, Norway.Ó
Ó Lapland German mobile transmitters in reserve;
Lapland Sender at Rovaniemi 1942-November 1944,
Studio & offices in barracks.
10 kM from Rovaniemi in 7 railway wagons,
1 1st stage
2 1st stage
4 Final stage
6 Antenna and masts
7 Longwave antenna
Variety programming, news, Finnish language lessons; Kurier
Last broadcast Nov 1944, withdrawn to Norway.
Abandoned in Bergen, now in Radio Museum.<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]>Ó
Comment: The information above that this transmitter went to the Bergen Radio Museum at LKB Ask¿y is very probably not correct. <![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]>
Source 8. DX-ListenersÕClub, Norway. Bernt Erfjord.
From ÓNorske Kringkastingsendere.Ó(Norwegian Broadcasting Stations, about mostly vintage Norwegian AM Transmitters. ©Bernt Erfjord, DXLC 1996 rev.2001 by this writer.)
lesund, Vigra: 623230N/060324E. Call sign LKA.
Ó1945-1948: 20 kW German mobile field station, that came from Finland, captured by Norwegian Forces after the war. Consisted of mobile units driven near each other with a roof added. If the Montreux Plan had been activated, Vigra would have used 708 kHz. However, it was logged in Sweden on 629 kHz in October 1945. (R¿ster i Radio 43/45)But Longwave 282 kHz is mentioned in list from 1946, this also being the frequency late 1945.<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]> 1947: 629 kHz 20 kW. (This is the frequency from the Copenhagen Plan not officially implemented before March 15th, 1950!)
Source 9. Norsk Radiohistorisk Forening.
(Norwegian Radiohistoric Society. )Just Quigstad:
ÓÉAfter the war the reserve transmitter of 1 KW, was substituted by a 20 kW mobile broadcast station taken over by the Germans. The booty, originally from Finland, consisted of several mobile units that were linked and a roof was built over them. This started transmissions at Vigra as LKA from Oct. 25th, 1945, synchronized with Bergen I on LW 282 kHz. From 1947 on 629 kHz.Ó
Comment: The Wavelength table of R¿ster i Radio for March 10th, 1946 has LKA Vigra still on 629 kHz, synchronized with LKT Trondheim-Tyholt. LKB Bergen is the only one listed on 282 kHz.
Source 10. ÓNRKs tekniske tjeneste og beredskapstjenestenÓ, by ¯ystein Halvorsen, in ÓKringkastingens tekniske historie. En artikkelsamlingÓ, p.272-273. NRK 1999©ISBN 82-7118-260-9.
In this book, what was Sender ÓLÓ is dealt with under the subject of reserve transmitters after the war. No mention is made of any appearance at LKA Vigra or LKB Bergen. The complete station was mothballed in a garage at Nordseter, Lillehammer. The Telegrafverket(later: Televerket, Telenor) took it for granted than they owned it. In 1949, 3 of the trucks, including the one with the temporary antenna, were sold on the civilian market. An inspection was held the next year, and established that 6 of the units, including the transmitter and permanent antenna were intact. In addition, a diesel generator truck was found at Raufoss, with considerable damage.
A lot of discussion followed regarding ownership, use and responsibility, and it was not before 1954 that the Defence Staff decided the station to be given to the NRK complete and cost free.
Then it was up to the NRK to continue the discussions. Some of the ideas for use that came up were reserve for LKO Lambertseter 218 kHz(later at Kl¿fta) or as a new relay for the NRK at Andoeya in Northern Norway.
It would appear that nothing at all came out of this, and what was the 2,5 Million Mark Sender ÓLÓ , now at LKF in Fredrikstad, was scrapped in the early 60s.
Comment: The story is not unlike what happened to 200 kW LKO Kl¿fta 216 kHz where the two towers were felled 1995, or the sad fate of most of the Decca station sites from 1998 onwards. It would seem that many decision makers cannot have had a clear understanding of the potential of AM broadcasting, and what it could mean for the country.
Picture: Sender L was mothballed after the war. Picture: The late Erik JulsrudÕs collection.
Final comment: HitlerÕs Airwaves
The book HitlerÕs Airwaves(ÓThe inside book of Nazi Radio Broadcasting and Propaganda SwingÓ) might describe some of the background of the above story. In chapter 8: ÓThe Battle StationsÓ and Radio ArnhemÓ(The latter also heard by Jan Erik Rf) it is indicated on p.224 that Óseveral mobile transmitters were establishedÉin co-operation with units of the Wehrmacht propaganda Department(OKW/WPr) and the ÓSS-Standarte Kurt EggersÓ, which had a broadcasting section of its ownÉÓ<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]>(Horst J.P.Bergmeier and Rainer E.Lotz: HitlerÕs Airwaves, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT/London, UK, ISBN 0-300-06709-7)
Picture: News item from DX-Radio 1944 about Soldatensender Kolibri, Aten and Mittelmeer.
A long-wave station previously used in Rovaniemi, Finland, was established at Hellerud near Tveten grd in the Aker municipality near Oslo towards the end of WW2 and used for Knigsbergradio programs. It announced itself as ÓHallo NordenÓ, and broadcast on 297 khz, 1010 metres longwave.
But during these troubled years, the occupants of course could have established the stations and used the frequencies they wanted.
Two stations from the same site might be indicated by the information from the Godlia source of Medium Wave reception in 1942. (However, reception so near the site might have been a harmonic of the original signal, then likely to appear at least on 594 kHz Medium Wave)
If there was another station at Tveita it might have been a ÓSoldatensenderÓ or a station relaying a regular German service from Óthe ReichÓ, such as Deutschlandsender.
The station might have been briefly used as part of the NRK domestic network shortly after the war, but after this Norwegian authorities for over 15 years never managed to come up with any decision for use, and eventually scrapped it.
Picture: Tveten farm, Tveten Road no. 101 in pre-war years. In the background downhill the villages of Godlia and Hellerud to the left, and Bryn to the right. The lighter field in the lower right corner was the Hellerud (aka the Tveten fields)location of Sender L towards the end of the war. The actual site as a whole is not in the picture, but indications are that one of the antenna masts was located near the road in the picture.
By kind permission from Groruddalen historielag©.
Web addresses 2023:
This is the original essay from 2003 in the original English edition:
Main essay, first Norwegian edition 2023: ÓHallo NordenÓ:
Soldatensender Lappland: www.stellamaris.no/soldatlappland.pdf
Soldatensender Oslo: www.stellamaris.no/soldatoslo.pdf
RRG/DES ÓSchweden-Program 1939-1945: www.stellamaris.no/konigs1.pdf
<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]> 2023: Links updated.
<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]> A full survey of these stations reveal:
¥ Mobile Broadcast Transmitter, or Fahrbarer Rundfunksender I, II (in Spain), Ill, IV: large stations, medium wave, 20 kW
¥ Mobile Broadcast Transmitter, or Fahrbarer Rundfunksender V: large station, long wave, 20 kW
¥ Mobile Broadcast Transmitter, or Fahrbarer Rundfunksender A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I (mostly spelt wrongly with a J), K: smaller stations, medium wave, 20 kW
¥ Mobile Broadcast Transmitter, or Fahrbarer Rundfunksender L, M, N, O, P, Q: smaller stations, long wave, 20 kW
¥ Mobile Broadcast Transmitter, or Fahrbarer Rundfunksender Y: station built by a communications unit of German forces (Funkeinsatztrupp 17) in the occupied territories of the USSR, medium wave, 6 kW
¥ Eisenbahnsender ,,Schwerstes Funkfeuer": train, long and medium wave, 100 kW, handing over to the German forces in spring 1945 (probably no regular transmissions)( Bernd-Andreas Mller, see Source 2)
<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]> Translated: ÓYouth in the Grorud Valley during the war.Ó http://www.grohi.no
<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]> Nearby at Skoeyenaasen, near the village of Oppsal, there was a large German Military Camp called Rosenbusch. This was an HQ for pioneer troops for Norway and Finland. There were also utility radio sites at Brannfjell(Kriegsmarine)Ekeberg plateau( 3 Luftwaffe stations, also used by Kriegsmarine)Merchant School, Ekeberg Restaurant, Oestmarksetra and a large 16-mast array at Boeler(Kriegsmarine). (Terje R.Diesen: Tysk okkupasjon av S¿ndre Aker 1940-1945-S¿r i Aker 1989-1990, rbok for S¿ndre Aker historielag)
<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]> Published by Verlag Dr.Rdiger Walz, Idstein, Germany. In this book there is an extensive apparatus of footnotes and sources. The sources for this part are: Knut Berger, Berlin; Bundesarchiv, Berlin; Bundesarchiv-Militrarchiv, Freiburg; Deutsches Rundfunkarchiv, Frankfurt(Main); ÓLappland-KurierÓ(newspaper ran by propaganda unit PK680).
<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]> Gnther Heysing: ÓKriegseinsatz deutscher Rundfunkleute in Dnemark/Norwegen/Finnland 9.april 1940 bis 8.Mai 1945Ó, p.124,131
This document with several similar others of same author in Deutsches Rundfunkarchiv.
<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]> Actually, the Swedish program of DES, "Die Deutschen Europasender" (name of the official external services of Reichsrundfunk for Europe) was transmitted via Heilsberg II (the second 100 kW transmitter at this East Prussian site [today's Polish name: Lidzbark Warminski]) at March 15th 1944 on the former frequency of Kattowitz [Polish name: Katowice] 868 kHz and via "WeichselÓ (Warschau-Raszyn, Polish name: Warszawa-
Raszyn) on 224 kHz with 120 kW. "Weichsel" was destroyed by the Germans on January 16th 1945(RiR 40/October 6th, 1945 had a picture of this site in ruins and intact); Heilsberg II was without modulation on January 25th and destroyed by German forces on January 31st 1945.(Bernd-Andreas Mller)
<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]> (Bernd-Andreas Mller)
<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]> Documents re. the Norwegian transmissions from Knigsberg were spotted in documents of Reichsministerium fr Volksaufklrung und Propaganda in the former Zentrales Staatsarchiv der DDR in Potsdam(signature 50.01). Now in Bundesarchiv in Berlin(signature R55).
<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]> Bernd-Andreas Mller comments: ÓThe telescope masts and also the self radiating round steel masts of the mobile transmitters for long waves were temporary antennas only; the usual antenna systems for these frequencies consisted of three T antennas between three masts (named " Dreieckflchenantenne ").
<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]> Kurier 11-12/2001
<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]> Bernd-Andreas Mller also questions some of this information.
<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]> The original frequency range of transmitter "L" was 136 to 500 kHz; perhaps it was changed later. (The transmitter "M"(Sender Martha/Soldatensender Monika(Belgium/later ex-USSR) was changed to MW in July 1945 in Germany.)( Bernd-Andreas Mller)
<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]> The "Soldatensender Lappland" and all other German "Soldatensender" were radio stations for the German soldiers; while the battle stations in 1944/45 ("Amhem"; "Krautland calling"; "Radio 45"; "Jerry's Front Radio" etc.) were "Kampfsender"; propaganda stations targetted towards the Allied forces. Both kinds of stations have used mobile transmitters. (Bernd-Andreas Mller)